Lesson 15:
Adjectives / Synonyms / Antonyms

Adjectives / Synonyms / Antonyms

Adjectives

Positive: Expresses a basic quality.

Example:

Ella es bonita.
She is pretty.

Ellos son amables.
They are nice.

Comparative: Sets the comparison between two or more objects. The comparisons may include adjectives, nouns, adverbs or verbs. It is divided into three degrees of comparisons: Equality, Superiority, Inferiority, as explained below:


Degree of Equality: The equality comparisons are expressed in three ways:

tan + adjective, adverb + como (as…as)

Example:

Ella es tan alegre como su novio.
She is as happy as her boyfriend.

Ella habla tan bien como su esposo.
She speaks as well as her husband.

tanto(a) + noun + como (as much…as)

tantos(as) + noun + como (as many…as)

Example:

Él tiene tantos libros como yo.
He has as many books as I do.

Tú compraste tantas cosas como él.
You bought as many things as him.

verb + tanto + como (as much…as)

Example:

Él tiene tanto dinero como yo.
He has as much money as I do.

Nosotros trabajamos tanto como ella.
We work as much as her.

Degree of Superiority: The superiority comparisons are expressed in two ways:

más + adjective, adverb, or noun + que (more…than)

Example:

Él tiene más experiencia que los otros maestros.
He has more experience than the other teachers.

El oro es más caro que la plata.
Gold is more expensive than silver.

verb + más + que (verb + more + than)

Example:

Yo sé más que tú.
I know more than you.

Tú gastaste más que todos nosotros.
You spent more than all of us.

Degree of Inferiority: The inferiority comparisons are expressed in two ways:

menos + adjective, adverb or noun + que (less….than)

Example:

Tú libro es menos interesante que este.
Your book is less interesting than this one.

Ella tiene menos dinero que él.
She has less money than him.

verb + menos + que (verb + less + than)

Example:

Su interés es menos que el tuyo.
Your/his/her interest is less than yours.

Tú pagaste menos que yo.
You paid less than me.

NOTE:

“De” can replace “que” in sentences with numbers, comparing either superiority or inferiority.

Example:

Él gana más de 100 dólares a la semana.
He earns more than $100 a week.

Ella no tiene menos de 15 años.
She is no less than 15 years old. (Literally: She has no less than 15 years).

Use “de + lo/la/los/las + que” when there are two or more verbs in a sentence, that compares either superiority or inferiority.

Example:

Él gasta más de lo que gana.
He spends more than what he earns.

Yo tengo menos energía de la que necesito.
I have less energy than what I need.

Relative superlative: Use “el/la/los/las + más/menos + adjective” construction when comparing a noun to a related subject to the maximum or minimum degree.

Example:

Este libro es el más caro de la tienda.
This book is the most expensive in the store.

La camisa roja es la menos bonita.
The red shirt is the least pretty.

Estos libros son los más viejos de la biblioteca.
These books are the oldest in the library.

Absolute superlative: Quality is expressed in relation to other objects, actions or people. It is does not describe the noun in the context of a larger group, and is formed by adding the suffix:

-ísimo(a/os/as)

If the word ends in a vowel change the last vowel.

Example:

barato baratísimo
caro carísimo
grande grandísimo
Example:

Esta casa es grandísima.
This house is very big / grand.

El carro resultó carísimo.
The car was very expensive.

When the adjective ends in a consonant, only add the ending.

Example:

ágil agilísimo
difícil dificilísimo
fácil facilísimo
Example:

El español es facilísimo de aprender.
Spanish is very easy to learn.

El chico es agilísimo para conducir un auto de carreras.
The boy is very good driving a race car.

The adjectives ending in “-co / -go / -z / -ble” change as follows:

-co -qu

-go -gu

-z -c

-ble -bil

Example:

amable amabilísimo
feliz felicísimo
largo larguísimo
rico riquísimo
Example:

La comida estuvo riquísima.
The food was very delicious.

El recorrido de la caminata fue larguísimo.
The route of the walk was very long.

Synonyms:

Synonyms are words that have a meaning similar or identical to each other and belong to the same grammatical category.

Acabar / terminar / concluir / finalizar to finish, to end Despacio / lentamente slowly
Acaso / tal vez / quizás perhaps, maybe Detenerse / pararse to stop
Acordarse / recordar to remember Diferente / distinto different
Afecto / cariño affection Diligente / trabajador diligent, hard-working
Alegre / feliz / contento happy, merry Dueño / propietario owner
Alumno / estudiante student Echar / arrojar / lanzar / tirar to throw
Alzar / elevar / levantar to raise Empezar / comenzar / iniciar to begin
Andar / caminar to walk Enfadarse / enojarse to become angry
Antiguo / viejo old, ancient Enviar / mandar to send
Aplicado / diligente diligent Error / falta error, mistake
Asustar / espantar to frighten, to scare Esposo / marido husband
Atravesar / cruzar to cross Grave / serio serious
Aún / todavía still, yet Hallar / encontrar to find
Bastante / suficiente enough, sufficient Idioma / lengua language
Batalla / combate / lucha battle, fight Igual / semejante similar, alike
Bello / hermoso beatiful Invitar / convidar to invite
Bonito /lindo pretty Irse / marcharse to go away
Broma / chiste joke Jamás / nunca never
Buque / barco / vapor ship, boat Lugar / sitio place
Cabello / pelo hair Maestro / profesor teacher
Cara / rostro face Miedo / temor fear
Célebre / famoso / ilustre famous Mostrar / enseñar to show
Colocar / poner to place País / nación country, nation
Comprender / entender to understand Pájaro / ave bird
Conseguir / obtener to get, to obtain Quedarse / permanecer to remain
Contester / responder to answer, to replay Rico / delicioso / sabroso delicious
Corto / breve short Rogar / suplicar to beg
Cuarto / habitación / dormitorio bedroom Seguir / continuar to continue
Cura / sacerdote priest Sólo / solamente only
Dejar / permitir to let, to allow Sorprender / asombrar to surprise
Delgado / flaco thin Suceder / ocurrir / pasar to happen, to occur
Demonio / diablo / satanás devil Sufrir / padecer to suffer
Desear / querer to want, to wish Volver / regresar to return

Antonyms

Antonyms are words that have the opposite meaning from one another, and are in the same grammatical category.

Abajo – arriba below, downstairs – above, upstairs Grande – pequeño large – small
Abrir – cerrar to open – to close Guerra – paz war – peace
Acercarse a – alejarse de to approach – to move away from Hermoso – feo beautiful – ugly
Acordarse de –
olvidarse de
to remember – to forget Inteligente – estúpido intelligent – stupid
Alegre – triste happy – sad Ligero, liviano –
pesado
light – heavy
Algo – nada something – nothing Limpio – sucio clean – dirty
Alguien – nadie someone, somebody – no one, nobody Lleno – vacío full – empty
Alguno – ninguno some – none Llorar – reír to cry – to laugh
Allí – aquí there – here Más – menos more – less
Alto – bajo high, tall – low, short Mayor – menor older – younger
Amar – odiar to love – to hate Mejor – peor better – worse
Amargo – dulce bitter – sweet Mentir –
decir la verdad
to lie – to tell de truth
Afuera – adentro outside – inside Meter – sacar to put in – to take out
Amigo – enemigo friend – enemy Mismo – diferente same – different
Amor – odio love – hate Mucho -s –
poco -s
much many – little few
Ancho – estrecho wide – narrow Muerte – vida death – life
Anoche – esta noche last night – tonight Norte – sur north – south
Antes de – después de before – after Oscuro – claro dark – light
Antigua – moderno old, ancient – modern Perder – encontrar to lose – to find
Aparecer – desaparecer to appear – to desappear Perezoso – trabajador lazy – hard-working
Ausente – presente absent – present Permitir – prohibir to permit – to prohibit
Bajar – subir to go down – to go up Pobre – rico poor – rich
Barato – caro cheap – expensive Ponerse – quitarse to put on – to take off
Bien – mal well – badly, poorly Posible – imposible possible – impossible
Bueno – malo good – bad Prestar –
pedir prestado
to lend – to borrow
Caballero – dama gentleman – lady Primero – ùltimo first – last
Cerca de – lejos de near – far from Rápido – despacio quickly – slowly
Cielo – tierra sky, heaven – earth, ground Recoger – dejar caer to pick up – to drop
Común – raro common – rare Respuesta -pregunta answer – question
Debajo de – encima de under – on top Rubio – moreno blond – brunette
Débil – fuerte weak – strong Ruido – silencio noise – silence
Delante de – detrás de in front of – behind Sabio – tonto wise – foolish
Difícil – fácil difficult – easy Salir de – entrar en to leave – to enter
Duro – suave hard – soft Siempre – nunca always – never
Entrada – salida entrance – exit Tarde – temprano late – early
Esposo – esposa husband – wife Valiente – cobarde brave – coward
Este – oeste east – west Verano – invierno summer – Winter
Éxito – fracaso success – failure Verdad – mentira truth – lie
Feliz – triste happy – sad Vicio – virtud vice – virtue
Fin – principio end – beginning Viejo – nuevo old – new
Flaco – gordo thin – fat Viejo – joven old – Young
Frío – caliente cold – hot Vivo – muerto alive – dead