Lesson 23:
Nouns

Nouns

Definition:

Nouns are words we use to name objects, people, countries, etc. Like the articles, they have a gender (female or male), and number (singular or plural).

Male and female nouns: They are classified according to gender.

For example:

Masculino English Femenino English
el hombre the man la mujer the woman
el padre the father la madre the mother
el actor the actor la actriz the actress
el toro the bull la vaca the cow
el caballo the horse la yegua the mare

Singular and plural nouns: They are classified according to the number.

For example:

Singular English Plural English
la copa the cup las copas the cups
la mesa the table las mesas the tables
el tigre the tiger los tigres the tigers
la torre the tower las torres the towers
el curso the course los cursos the courses
el libro the book los libros the books

Proper and Common Nouns

Common nouns: name all the objects that belong to the same species.

For example:

Noun English
las familias the families
los niños the children
el juguete the toy
la fruta the fruit

Proper nouns: are words that distinguish or identify a person or thing, from others of their species. They are always written with an initial capital letter.

For example:

Noun
Diego
Guatemala
Apple
Madrid

Abstract and Concrete Nouns

Concrete nouns: are words that name things that can be perceived with the senses, you can see it, smell it, taste it, hear it, or touch it, or that you imagine as real.

For example:

Noun English
el mar the sea
el perfume the perfume
el calor the color
el hada the faire
el duende the goblin

Abstract nouns: are words that name things that are not concrete. They represent immaterial concepts that are not perceived with the senses of the body but exists only in the mind.

For example:

Noun English
el amor the love
el miedo the fear
el sabiduría the wisdom
la ansiedad the anxiety

Collective nouns: a collection/group of people or things taken as a whole. Most collective nouns in everyday speech are mundane and not specific to just one kind, such as the word “group”.

For example:

Noun English
la gente the people
el dinero the money
el enjambre the swarm
la manada the pack / the herd

Uncountable Nouns: anything that cannot be counted is an uncountable noun. Even though uncountable nouns are not individual objects, they are always singular and one must always use singular verbs in conjunction with uncountable nouns.

For example:

Noun English
la arena the sand
el azúcar the sugar
el frío the cold
la nieve the snow

Derivative nouns: are words that are derived from another word.

For example:

Noun English
la panadería the bakery
la cafetería the cafeteria
el rosal the rosebush
el naranjal the orange grove

Compound nouns: are words that are formed by two simple words.

For example:

Noun English
el matamoscas the fly swatter
el abrelatas the can opener
el sacacorchos the corkscrew
el cumpleaños the birthday

Synonyms

The synonyms are words that have the same meaning but their structure is different between them.

Here’s a list of these synonyms:

Noun Synonym Synonym English
abochornado avergonzado embarrassed
aborrecer despreciar odiar to hate
abusar aprovecharse to abuse
acercarse aproximarse get close
actitud gesto attitude
albergue refugio refuge
apetito hambre hungry
asear limpiar to clean
asesino homicida murder
Avión aeronave airplane
Aviso advertencia advertisement
a veces algunas veces   sometimes
al fin finalmente finally
alegre contento (-ta) feliz happy
algunos unos varios some / several
alumna (-no) estudiante   student
andar caminar ir a pie to walk
bonito lindo   pretty
costumbre hábito   habit
Carro auto coche car
comenzar empezar   to begin
comprender entender   to understand
contestar responder   to answer
deber obligación obligation
difunto muerto dead
de nuevo otra vez   again
desear querer   to wish
doctor medico   doctor
excusa disculpa excuss
encontrar hallar   to find
entonces luego   then
examen prueba   test
franqueza sinceridad frankness
habitación dormitorio   bedroom
ingenuo inocente innocent
jubilación retiro retired
maestra (-tro) profesora (-ro)   teacher
Partir salir   to depart / to leave
poseer tener   to have / to own
Rato momento moment
remedio medicina medicamento medicine
regresar volver   to return
suceder pasar ocurrir to happen
sabroso delicioso rico delicious
Vasto amplio inmenso immense

Antonyms or Opposites

An antonym or opposites is a word or expression opposite in meaning to another word.

Here’s a list of these antonyms or opposites:

Noun English Antonym English
Amar to love odiar to hate
amargo bitter dulce sweet
arriba up/above abajo down/below
Abrir to open cerrar to close
acercarse to get closer alejarse to walk away
algo something nada nothing
alguien someone nadie no one
aquí here allli there
alto told/high bajo short/low
ahora now después later
ancho wide estrecho narrow
amigo friend enemigo enemy
ayer yesterday mañana tomorrow
antes de before después de after
adentro in afuera out
atrás behind adelante in front
bueno good malo bad
feo ugly bonito beauty
feliz happy triste sad
frío cold calor hot
claro light oscuro dark
caro expensive barato cheap
con with sin without
corto short largo long
caliente hot frío cold
día day noche night
duro hard sueve soft
debajo under encima on
encendido on apagado off
halar pull empujar push
incapaz incapable capaz capable
lejos far cerca near
liviano light pesado heavy
lento/despacio slow veloz/rápido fast
mayoría majority minoría less
mentiroso liar sincere honest
miedo scare valentía brave
mojado wet seco dry
mortal mortal inmortal immortal
negro black blanco white
obeso/gordo fat delgado/flaco thin
pasado past presente present
pequeño small grande big
reír to laugh llorar to cry
sentado seated parado/de pie standing
sucio dirty limpio clean
tímido shy atrevido daring
verano summer invierno winter
viejo old joven young
vacío empty lleno full