Lesson 25:
The Perfect Present Subjunctive

The Perfect Present Subjunctive

Formation of verbs

Like the present perfect tense, we use the verb “haber” (to have) as an auxiliary + past participle. Unlike the conjugation of the verb “haber”, in the present perfect indicative, it is conjugated in the present tense. In the present perfect subjunctive, it is conjugated in the present subjunctive.

Yo haya
Tú hayas
Él/Ella haya
Nosotros hayamos
Ellos hayan

+
comido
vendido
hecho

The perfect present subjunctive expresses an action before another action that, will may, or may not be made.

 

CONCORDANCE OF TENSES

Main Clause

Present tense indicative-
Expresses a past idea
 
Future tense indicative-
Expresses a future idea
 
Commands / The Imperative-
Expresses a past or future idea

+
que
+
Dependent Clause

 
 
 
Present Perfect Subjunctive

Nominal clause (verbs)

In nominal clause use verbs, we have specific classifications of verbs that can be combined with the subjunctive.

These verbs are:

Desire: desear, esperar, necesitar, querer, preferir.

Example:

Tú prefieres que él haya ido para que no tengas que ir tú.
You prefer that he’s gone so you do not have to go.

Él necesita que nosotros hayamos enviado todas las invitaciones porque no tenemos mucho tiempo antes de la fiesta.
He needs that we’ve sent all the invitations because we do not have much time before the party.

Yo espero que mi estudiante haya hecho la tarea, porque necesito ver su progreso.
I hope that my student has done the homework, because I need to see his progress.

Plea: implorar, orar, pedir, rezar, rogar, suplicar.

Example:

Ruego que ellos hayan llegado bien a la casa.
I pray that they have arrived safely to the house.

La madre ruega que sus hijos no hayan tenido ningún problema.
The mother begs that her children have not had any problems.

El director de la escuela suplica que la policía haya atrapado a los ladrones.
The principal pleads that the police have caught the thieves.

Doubt: creer, dudar*, imaginar, pensar, sospechar, suponer.

*All verbs except dudar use the subjunctive only in a negative or interrogative form.

Example:

Dudo que la muchacha haya comprado lo que le pedí, pues no veo muchos paquetes en la mesa.
I doubt that the girl had bought what I asked because I don’t see many packages on the table.

No creeré que ellos hayan terminado la tarea hasta que la vea en la mesa.
I will not believe that they have completed the homework until I see it on the table.

¿Sospechas tú que tu novio te haya sido infiel durante su viaje a España?
Do you suspect that your boyfriend has been unfaithful during his trip to Spain?

Feeling: encantar, extrañar, gustar, lamentar, sentir, temer, tener miedo de.

Example:

Lamento que tú hayas tenido que terminar con tu novio de esta manera.
I’m sorry you’ve had to break up with your boyfriend in this way.

Él teme que su madre haya perdido sus maletas en el aeropuerto, porque ella olvida las cosas muy fácilmente.
He fears that his mother has lost her luggage at the airport, because she forgets things easily.

Te gustará que él haya comprado la casa antes de que te proponga matrimonio.
You will like that he has purchased the house before he will propose marriage to you.

Emotion: (Reflexive emotion verbs use the subjunctive with indirect object pronouns plus the third person singular él of the verb.) Alegrarse, angustiarse, asombrarse, asustarse, conmoverse, disgustarse, emocionarse, enfadarse, enojarse, espantarse, incomodarse, indignarse, interesarse, irritarse, molestar, preocuparse, sorprenderse.

Example:

Emocionarse
me emociona
te emociona
le emociona
nos emociona
les emociona
Example:

Me alegra que hayas ido al cine con nosotros.
I’m glad you went to the movies with us.

Te asombrará que él haya terminado su tarea tan pronto, ya verás lo bueno e inteligente que es.
You will be amazed that he has completed his homework so soon, you’ll see how good and smart he is.

A él le sorprende que tú hayas hecho lo que hiciste, pues nunca pensamos que serías capaz de hacerlo.
He is surprised that you have done what you did, because we never thought that you would be able to do it.

When previous verbs use the reflexive form, generally use “de” before “que”.

Example:

Emocionarse
me emociono de
te emocionas de
se emociona de
nos emocionamos de
se emocionan de
Example:

Me alegro de que hayas ido al cine con nosotros.
I’m glad you went to the movies with us.

Te asombrarás de que él haya terminado su tarea tan pronto, ya verás lo bueno e inteligente que es.
You will be amazed that he has completed his homework as soon, you’ll see how good and smart he is.

Él se sorprende de que tú hayas hecho lo que hiciste, pues nunca pensamos que serías capaz de hacerlo.
He is surprised that you have done what you did, because we never thought that you would be able to do it.

Impersonal clause: (impersonal phrases)

As its name implies, this clause uses impersonal phrases, which we are going to divide into two groups, as follows.

The impersonal phrases that express doubt, possibility or any opinion, use the subjunctive if they use the conjunction “que”. If they do not use this conjunction, the subjunctive is not used, and the verb should be in the infinitive.

These phrases are:

conviene que agree that / should es probable que it is probable that
es aconsejable que it is advisable that es recomendable que it is recommended that
es alegre que it is great that es sorprendente que it’s surprising that
es asombroso que it is amazing that es triste que it is sad that
es bueno que it is good that es una lástima que it is a pity that
es conveniente que it is desirable that es urgente que it is urgent that
es difícil que it is difficult that importa que it matters that
es dudoso que it is doubtful that más vale que had better that
es fácil que it is easy that ojalá que hopefully that
es importante que it is important that parece mentira que not believe that
es imposible que it is impossible that posiblemente maybe / possibly
es increíble que it is incredible that probablemente likely
es lamentable que it is a shame / unfortunate that puede ser que it can be that
es malo que it is wrong that quizá / quizás perhaps
es mejor que it is better that sorprende que surprising that
es necesario que it is necessary that tal vez maybe
es posible que it is possible that urge que urgent that
es preciso que it must be that vale la pena que it is worthwhile that
es preferible que it is preferable that
Example:

Dile que ojalá haya limpiado su cuarto, porque si no lo ha hecho cuando yo llegue a la casa no le voy a dar permiso para que vaya a la fiesta.
Tell him I hope he has cleaned his room, because if he has not done it when I get home, I will not give him permission to go to the party.

Es urgente que él haya hecho esa llamada, porque de lo contrario estamos esperando aquí en balde.
It is urgent that he has made that call, because otherwise we’re waiting here in vain.

Será necesario que todos hayan pagado su boleto antes del viaje para no tener problemas el día de la salida.
It will be necessary for everyone to have paid their tickets before the trip to avoid problems the day we leave.

Quizás él haya tenido problemas y por eso no pudo venir, pero ¿Por qué no llamó para avisar que no vendría?
Perhaps he had problems, and therefore he could not come, but why does he not call to warn that he could not come?

The impersonal phrases expressing certainty only use the subjunctive mood in a negative way and use the conjunction “que”. When used in the affirmative form, they use the verb in the indicative, not subjunctive.

These phrases are:

no es cierto que it is not true that
no es claro que it is not clear that
no es evidente que it is not evident that
no es lógico que it is not logical that
no es obvio que it is not obvious that
no es seguro que it is not sure that
no es verdad que it is not true that
no parece que it doesn’t seem that
Example:

No es cierto que él haya tenido un accidente porque yo lo vi ayer y estaba bien.
It is not true that he has had an accident because I saw him yesterday and he was fine.

No parece que tú hayas estado enferma, te ves muy bien. ¡Qué bueno!
It does not look like you’ve been sick; you look great. How great!

No es seguro que el doctor haya encontrado el origen de su enfermedad, pero vamos a hacer otros estudios para investigar un poco más.
It’s not certain that the doctor has found the source of your illness, but we will run more tests to investigate further.

Adverbial clause: (conjunctions)

Adverbial clauses are words or phrases that join two sentences. These conjunctions are divided into three groups.

In the first group we use the subjunctive after the conjunction if the idea is in future, and if the idea is in present, we use the indicative mood.

These conjunctions are:

apenas no sooner, just
así que so that
cuando when, whenever, even if
después de que after that
durante during
en cuanto as soon as
en seguida de que after that
hasta que until
luego de que after that
mientras que while, whereas
tan pronto como as soon as
Example:

Saldremos tan pronto como haya dejado de llover.
We will leave as soon as it stopped raining.

Espera hasta que todos hayan terminado el examen para irte.
Wait until everyone has completed the examination for you to go.

Dile que llegue a la casa cuando nosotros ya nos hayamos ido para que no haya más problemas.
Tell him to get home when we have already left, to not have more problems.

The following conjunctions use the subjunctive when they use the word “que”, if not, use infinitive.

These conjunctions are:

a fin de que in order that
a menos que unless
a no ser que unless
antes de que before
con la condición de que with the condition that
con tal de que as long as / provided that
en caso de que in case
para que in order that, so that
sin que without
Example:

Te daré permiso para salir con la condicion de que hayas ganado todas tus clases.
I will give you permission to go out with the condition that you have passed all your classes.

No compraré la casa sin que me hayas dado tu autorización.
I will not buy the house without you giving me your authorization.

Con tal de que ella haya terminado su relación con él, no me importa haber hecho lo que hice.
As long as she has ended her relationship with him, I do not care what I have done.

The following conjunctions use the subjunctive if the idea is unknown, if the idea is known use indicative.

aunque in spite of / even if
como how
de manera que so that, and so
de modo que so that, and so
donde where
la próxima vez que the next time
según according to
Example:

Toma la medicina según te haya indicado el doctor.
Take the medication as the doctor has indicated to you.
Toma la medicina según te indicó el doctor. (known)

Ellos irán a la fiesta aunque tú no los hayas invitado.
They will go to the party even if you had not invited them.
Ellos irán a la fiesta aunque tú no los invitaste. (known)

Indefinite clause: (non-specific persons or things)

Any clause with an indefinite subject uses the subjunctive, and is generally used the following verbs: desear, querer, requerir, necesitar, buscar, pedir. Here we use the indefinite article un, una, unos, unas because the subject is non-specific.

Example:

Ella necesita una casa que haya sido construida con madera.
She needs a home that was built with wood.

Él buscará una secretaria que haya estudiado en el extranjero, para que tenga la fluidez necesaria en el inglés.
He will seek a secretary who has studied abroad, for her to have the necessary fluency in English.

Yo deseo que mi mamá sea atendida por un doctor que haya atendido casos como este.
I want my mother to be treated by a doctor who has treated cases like this.

The following expressions always use subjunctive, as expressing an idea indefinitely.

Como quiera que however
Cualquier + noun + que any + noun + that
Cualquiera que whoever
Cuandoquiera que whenever
Dondequiera que wherever
¿Hay algo que …? There is something that …?
¿Hay alguien que …? There is someone who …?
¿Hay algún + noun + que …? There is any + noun + that … ?
¿Hay alguna / algunas / algunos + noun + que …? There is any + noun + that … ?
Lo que / el que / la que / los que / las que what / that / which
Por + adjective or adverb + que for + adjective or adverb + that
Quienquiera que Whoever
siempre que provided that, as long as
Example:

Haré lo mismo que él haya hecho, para no perder la idea principal.
I will do the same thing he has done, to keep the main idea.

Cualquier edificio que haya sido construido en la época de la colonia en Antigua, es muy caro.
Any building that has been built in the colonial era in Antigua, is very expensive.

¿Hay algo aquí que haya podido causar el accidente?
Is there something here that may have caused the accident?

Compraré lo que él te haya pedido para la fiesta, para que no tengas problemas.
I’ll buy what he has asked you for the party, so you do not have problems.

Negative clause: (negative background)

A grammatical sentence that contradicts (or negates) all or part of the meaning of a sentence.

Example:

No + verb + noun + que No + verb + noun + that
No hay + noun + que There is no + noun + que
No hay nada que There is nothing that
No hay nadie que There is no one that
No hay ningún + noun + que There is no + noun + that
No hay ninguna / ningunas / ningunos + noun + que There is no + noun + that
No hay ninguno que There is no one that
No puede ser que It cannot be that
Example:

No puede ser que ustedes hayan gastado todo sus ahorros en cosas que no necesitan.
It cannot be that you have spent all of your savings on things that you do not need.

No hay ninguna cosa que haya sido construida en el aire, sin tener una base en tierra.
There isn’t anything that hasn’t been built in the air, without having a land base.

No necesito un libro que haya sido escrito en español, lo único que necesito es un libro que me ayude con mis lecciones de español.
I do not need a book that has been written in Spanish, all I need is a book to help me with my Spanish lessons.