Lesson 7:
Negative Prefixes / Possessive-Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns

Negative Prefixes / Possessive-Demonstrative Adjectives & Pronouns

DES – IN – I – IR: These negative words express something negative.

Negative beginning Positive words Negative beginning Positive words
DES + afortunado IN + activo
DES + compuesto IN + capaz
DES + conocen IN + cómodo
DES + conocido IN + completo
DES + consciente IN + correcto
DES + cortés IN + decente
DES + cuidado IN + experto
DES + ilusionado IN + feliz
DES + obediente IN + formal
DES + ordenado IN + perfecto
DES + preocupado IN + sensible
DES + prevenido IN + servible
DES + tapado IN + útil
I + legal IR + racional
I + lìcito IR + real
I + lógico IR + regular
IN + aceptable IR + remediable
Example:

El niño es muy desobediente.
The child is very disobedient.

Esa acción es inaceptable.
Such an action is unacceptable.

La venta de licor a menores es ilegal.
The sale of liquor to minors is illegal.

Las consecuencias del accidente son irremediables.
The consequences of the accident are unavoidable.

Negative Idioms

Example:

Ni yo tampoco (Nor I either)
Ella no tiene dinero ni yo tampoco.
She doesn’t have any money and neither do I.

De ninguna manera / De ningún modo (No way / by no means)
Ella no quiere hacer su tarea de ninguna manera.
By no means does she want to do her homework.

Ni siquiera (Not even)
No hubo ni siquiera una silla libre.
There was not even a free chair.

No cabe duda / No hay duda / Sin lugar a dudas (There is no doubt)
No cabe duda, ella es la nueva estudiante.
There is no doubt , she is the new student.

De nada (Your welcome)
Muchas gracias. De nada.
Thank you. You are welcome.

En ningún lado / En ninguna parte (Anywhere)
No vi a mi amiga en ningún lado.
I didn’t see my friend anywhere.

No importa (It does not matter)
¿Quieres leer o escribir? No importa.
Do you want to read or write? It doesn’t matter.

No lo creo (I don’t believe it)
Ella es la culpable. No lo creo.
She is the one to blame. I don’t believe it.

Creo que no (I don’t think so)
¿Vas a comprar el vestido? Creo que no.
Are you going to buy the dress? I don’t think so.

No puede ser (It cannot be)
iNo traje dinero, no puede ser!
I didn’t bring money, it cannot be!

Idioms with “VEZ”:

A la vez at the same time
A veces at times / sometimes
Algunas veces sometimes
Cada vez every time
De vez en cuando occasionally / from time to time
Dos veces twice
En vez de instead of
Muchas veces many times
Otra vez again
Pocas veces a few times
Raras veces rarely
Tal vez maybe, perhaps
Una que otra vez once in a while
Una vez once
Varias veces several times

Possessive adjectives

Short form Long form English
Yo mi – mis mío – mía – míos – mías my
tu – tus tuyo – tuya – tuyos – tuyas your
usted/Él/ella su – sus suyo – suya – suyos – suyas his/ her / its
Nosotros nuestro/a – nuestros/as nuestro/a – nuestros/as our
Ellos/ellas su – sus suyo – suya – suyos -suyas their
Ustedes su – sus suyo – suya – suyos -suyas their

The short forms of possessive adjectives precede the noun.

Example:

Mi casa.
My house.

Su fotografía.
His / her /its / their picture.

Nuestra escuela.
Our school.

Tus pañuelos.
Your handkerchiefs.

Nuestros juguetes.
Our toys.

The long forms of possessive adjectives follow the noun.

Example:

Un libro mío.
A book of mine.

Una amiga tuya.
A friend of yours.

Unos primos nuestros.
Some cousins of ours.

Note: Possessive adjectives agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the person or thing possessed, not with the possessor.

 

Possessive Pronouns

Example:

el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías (mine)
el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas (yours)
el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas (his, hers, its)
el nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras (ours)
el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas (theirs)

Possessive pronouns consist of the definite article + the long form of the possessive adjective.

The possessive pronouns agree in number and gender with the noun it replaces, not with the possessor.

Example:

Mi bicicleta es más nueva que la suya.
My bicycle is newer than his.

Esos papeles y los tuyos son importantes.
Those papers and yours are important.

Note: The specific meaning of “el suyo”, “la suya”, “los suyos”, “las suyas” may be made clear by replacing the possessive with the expressions: “de él”, “de ella”, “de ellos”, “de ellas”, “de ustedes” after the article.

Example:

Sus discos y los de ella.
His records and hers.

Mis monedas y las de ustedes.
My coins and yours.

After forms of “ser”, the article preceding the possessive pronoun is usually omitted.

Example:

Este cinturón es mío.
This belt is mine.

Aquellas bufandas son suyas.
Those scarves are his/hers.

Demonstrative Adjectives

Demonstrative adjectives precede the nouns they modify and agree with them in gender masculine or feminine and number singular or plural.

Masculine Feminine Meaning
Este Esta this
Estos Estas these
Ese Esa that
Esos Esas those
Aquel Aquella that
Aquellos Aquellas those
Example:

Este papel.
This paper.

Esas ventanas.
Those windows.

Note:

Este (this), estos (these), etc. refers to what is near or directly concerns the speaker.

Ese (that), esos (these), etc. refers to what is not so near or directly concerns the speaker.

Aquel (that), aquellos (those), etc. refers to what is remote from both the speaker and the person addressed, or does not directly concern either.

Example:

Esta novela es interesante.
This novel is interesting.

Raúl, quiero ese libro que tienes en la mano.
Raúl, I want that book that you have in your hand.

Raúl, prefiero aquel libro.
Raúl, I prefer that book (over there).

The adverbs aquí (here), ahí (there), and allí (over there) correspond to the demonstratives este, ese, and aquel, respectively.

Example:

Pon esta silla aquí.
Put this chair here.

Pon esa mesa ahí.
Put that table there.

Pon aquella lámpara allá.
Put that lamp over there.

Demonstrative Pronouns

Masculine Feminine Neutral Meaning
éste ésta esto this one
éstos éstas these
ése ésa eso that one
ésos ésas those
aquél aquélla aquello that one
aquéllos aquéllas those

Demonstrative pronouns agree in number and gender with the nouns they replace.

Example:

Este cuadro y aquél cuadro.
This painting and that one.

The neutral forms esto, eso and aquello refer to general statements, ideas or an object of an indeterminate gender. These forms do not vary in gender and number.

Example:

Es un hotel tranquilo y eso les gusta a los huéspedes.
It is a quiet hotel and the guests like that.

The question ¿Qué es esto / eso / aquello? – uses the neutral forms because the noun’s gender is unknown. After the nouns has been mentioned, the form of the demonstrative adjective or pronoun must correspond to the noun.

Example:

¿Qué es esto? – Es una piedra.
What is this? – It is a stone.

¿Es grande esta piedra? – Sí.
Is this stone big? – Yes.

Note: Demonstrative pronouns are distinguished from demonstrative adjectives by an accent mark. The neutral pronouns have no accent mark, since there are no corresponding neutral adjectives.